Today we will see how to create simple plot graphs in Python using Seaborn. I have found in a Data Science book (by Sinan Ozdemir) a simple graph where we can plot sales and expenditure in advertising for different media like TV, Radio, Newspaper.
Let’see how it works. Where is better to put the money? First of all import pandas and seaborn packages and dataset
import pandas as pd
import seaborn as sns
data = pd.read_csv('http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~gareth/ISL/Advertising.csv', index_col=0) #import data in CSV format using Pandas data.head() # let'see how data are structured
Let’s plot the data using some magic… and using seaborne package we can say to Python, to plot data having 3 x_vars, based on our 3 first column of our database, and on y_vars sales. Let’s see the result
But image to write the same commands now with Radio & Newspaper with capital letter. Python is very sensitive (or at least Anaconda version that I’m using), so take care of using correct name of variable.
An image worth more than thousand of data, sorry words. Yes, sometimes you have a lot of data to present in a very small period of data. What is better than a good dashboard where to see in a glance your KPI’s or a nice infographics to show tons of info in few seconds?
People don’t have time, so having all in one page is very useful to present but also to make a good storytelling to help your audience to digest complex info and memorize important messages.
Dashboard helps you to understand immediately what is going well (maybe showing green numbers, up arrows) and where to investigate more maybe with other self-service reports.
To create powerful visualization you need to fulfill the following requirements:
– What I want to explain with this dashboard? Maybe I want to show if we have reach our sales target, or which are the most contributors for growth or products that are in delay
– Test how simple and easy to read is your dashboard: go to one of your colleague with less familiarity with technology and ask to explain the content of our report. If he/she report the right message you have created a good one. Otherwise interview other people on what is difficult to read or unclear and simplify.
–Create your dashboard: you have several tools to create it:
Excel: Best info At Chandoo.org where you will discover how to create and manage your dashboard.
Python: More complicated but you can define every aspect of your dashboard.
Plotly and Bokeh are the modules that you can use to excel on this topic.
An interesting example is this Bokeh dashboard or Kickstarter project by category and status (successfull, cancelled…) including also name of the project if you pass through
R: Best choice: Here you can customize everything, using Shiny and Rmarkdown using less code than Python.
An interesting example is R Cran download monitor, where in one page you can see evolution of package download, name
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Today I would like to discuss with you about statistic skills you need to develop, if you want to become a data scientist. Do you need to be graduated in Statistics to do this job? The quick reply is some Statistics is needed, but practice is more important.
Data Science without Statistics is like owning a Ferrari without brakes. You can enjoy sitting in Ferrari, show off your newly owned car to others, but you can’t enjoy the drive for long because you would crash land soon!
-use statistic skills to explore and visualize data
-most important statistical theories (like hypothesis testing, bayesian analysis)
-know most common statistical models and define which is best to use (like linear regressions. Time series analysis)
-evaluate if the model is working for the purpose of your analysis.
But theory is not all, so the best way to learn about Stat skills is through practical approach. So don’t expect to become a good data scientist only reading books or learning theory.
Use statistics skills to explore data:
Understand & summarize your data:
If you are new in the world of data, dataset and graph, you can start from this free course : Analyzing categorical data provided by Khan Academy. Here you will learn how to identify individuals, variables, read different types of graphs and much more. I suggest to stop at first module, if you are at a basic level.
Let’s briefly report same simple statistical concept that it will be deep dive in separate post
Descriptive statistics: you are probably familiar with mean, median, mode, ranges and quartile. This info will help you to understand how looks like your dataset.
Coming back to our Wine dataset just with one command you can identify many of these information. In this case you will see that your database has around 130.000 records, with an average points (coming from reviews) of 88,45 and a reported average price of 35,36$
Minimum value is 80 and 4€ for price and max is 100 for variable points and 3.300 for price (Wow!!)
Percentiles:25%, also called first quartile: it means that observation 32.492 is represe
nting 25% of your dataset (in ascending order). This observation has an average review of 86 and a price of 17$.
Interesting to see that to arrive to 50% of this database you will increment only 2 value in points (88) but +30% in price (25%)
Distributions: explain you how it is possible (probable) that your data will be distributed. More famous is normal distribution, also knowned as “bell curve” (that happens many time in nature). Another important distribution curve, is binomial, that easily represent two status, i.e success or failure of a new drug.We will discuss about distributions in a separate post about distributions.
In the next topic we will discuss also about Hypothesis testing, Regression model, Time series analysis and other Intermediate Statistical concepts
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Ready to learn how to analyze data with Python in few minutes, without knowing too much about Python language? You can easily import 130.000 rows in few sceonds with Pandasmodule for Python. And using less than 10 commands you can explore number of records, column, and start to know mean, max & minimum and a lot more on your dataset
pandas is an open source library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming language.
Let’see the code to import CSV. Less than a minute
import pandas as pd #Import module pandas
#Using Panda to load csv
Location = r'C:\DATASET\WINE REVIEWS\winemag-data-130k-v2.csv'
df = pd.read_csv(Location) #Read CSV in location
Attention: change your path, changing ‘C:\DATASET\WINE REVIEWS\winemag-data-130k-v2.csv’ with your path. If you are not familiar with this check it out: 3 simple way to change your path in Anaconda/Python
WHAT KIND OF VARIABLE WE HAVE IN THE DATASET?
Using Anaconda, analyzing data with Python and Panda will be simple. We can see that now our df (Dataframe) has around 130k records and 14 variables(129971,14)
you can easily check what kind of data do you have. Here we have basically all variable as an object , while first variable, points are integer number (int64) and price include floating number (with decimals)
WHICH IS THE AVERAGE SCORING AND PRICE IN ANY COUNTRY?
One of the most commont things to analyze data with Python, is to understand average data, maybe grouping for some of your variables.If you want to know which is the average score and price by country, you can use
where in the parenthesis you need to put variable to be grouped and after the operation that you want to do .mean or .sum for example
So we will discover that in our dataset, average price in Argentina is 24,5$ with an average of 86,7$, beter than Austria that has 90 point in average but you have to pay 30$
Of course you can groupby by multiple column (‘country’,’region’)
FILTER ONLY DATA WITH PRICE >90$
Maybe you are interesting to easily know how many permutations you have in your database that fit with a particular threshold. In this case we would like to know how many records has a price >90$. Result is more than 4.000 records
HOW TO EXPORT IN CSV OR EXCEL WHEN YOU ANALYZE DATA WITH PYTHON ?
Easy, just write
df.to_csv('first.csv') #creating a csv file called first
df.to_excel('first.xlsx', sheet_name='Sheet1') #creating a xlsx file called first, in sheet 1
OTHER USEFUL COMMAND TO ANALYZE DATA WITH PYTHON
Df.head= See head of your dataset
Df.columns= show your columns names
Df.tail = show latest 3 record of your dataset
Df.index= show you the range of your dataset
Stay tuned next time we will describe how to user wordcloud to describe string variables. Subscribe to our newsletter for more news
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Today we will discover more about data mining. If you are not familiar with this concept, it is better that you start to understand more what is behind. We are talking about powerful tools and techique that will help you to get insight from your big data.
A simple definition is:
Data mining is the sum of technique and methodologies to collect information from different sources and manage in automatic way through algorithms and logical patterns
How data mining could help you to collect data ?
Data are growing fastly not only on social and open database, but everywhere.
With data mining tecnique like data scraping (taking data from internet, like ecommerce price , weather data, stock exchange…), you can increase number of datasources that you can use for your analysis.
Did you know that you can get data also from images. Discover more here:
In few minutes with very small line of code you can learn how to web scraping data using Python and R
How to group your data: clustering analysis
Image a big databases with many customers. It often happen that you have a lot of different groups of customer . Clustering analysis could easily identify which are customer with affinity that you can address in a similar group target, maybe because they are similar to size order, purchase need, purchase attitude.
This will help you or your firm to set different pricing, product and general marketing strategies more focused for that particular target.
Using Python or R will help you to identify clusters (see below an example of 3 clusters)
Regression analysis: identify future output based on historical data
Consider a dataset with icecream sales of last three years and one with temperature information. With regression you can create an algorithm to estimate how much icecream you can sales based on expected temperature
Interesting article that clarify more regression, expecially on marketing
Yes, how many times you have seen dataset with errors like typo distraction or duplicated info. Through specific tools and Machine learning you can easily identify and prevent this kind of error analyzing historical data and suggesting correct value.
How much time you can save from more robust and clear data set? Data scientist usually pass from 70% to 90% cleaning data
Classification analysis: a powerful data mining technique
In this field are growing machine learning algorithm and chatbot that in future could try to solve most of our questions, maybe about a product features, classifying our question base on common patterns.
Could be also interesting to identify common words in books, text, maybe through Wordcloud.
Signup to our newsletter to know soon how to analyze through wordcloud any text with Python and discover more info on datamining tools and techniques
I have started this website with a clear mission: to help all people that manage data, like Data analyst, Financial Controller, IT/IS people, Business partners and who else in the business that would like to base their decisions starting from robust data and analysis.
After many years as Finance Controller, Business Partner and Pricing Manager I have seen that people tend to maintain status quo. So changing is difficult, what I have discovered during my experience is that changes are more easy if you have robust data behind that help you to understand reason to change and benefit of new solutions.
Following Fromzerotodatascience.com you will:
– save time in your analysis using tips and tricks and most powerful tools (i.e Excel, Python,R)
Data scientist, what an appealing definition, but what kind of skills and which tools do you need to start? What is a good definition of data scientist?
Let’s discover on the web some good resources that will help us
Bernand Marr, in his “9 steps to become a data scientist from scratch” makes a good syntesis. I just reported what I like most:
Math & Statistical skills: mmh, not very appealing in some cases. I remind my study in Statistics and how much theoretical looks like. Probably I will discover soon that could be used in a more pratical way.
Learn tools: most of the activity will be cleaning your data to make good analysis. Remember garbage in, garbage out
Community: life of data scientist in same cases is not easy, many different tools and languages to be used. Having some peers and community places where asking help and support is fundamental.
Practice: someone has said that 90% of what you will learn is training by doing. I don’t know if the percentage is realistic, but certainly what I have learn most is from my trials, success and fortunately from my mistakes